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Black Pepper Cultivation

Black Pepper Cultivation

We Brain Chamber Technologies is renowned producers and exporters of black pepper from India. we have our own black pepper cultivation in India. Black pepper is well known as king of spices. It belongs to the family of piperaceae found in tropical forests of western ghats in south India. Black pepper is important well known spices produced in India and exported in gulf countries.

There are three verities of pepper corns are available Black Pepper , White Pepper and Pink peppers. India has account 54% of cultivated area of black pepper in the world. It is climbing evergreen plant grows up to 10 m height or more. The leaves of plant broadly lanceolate, variations also comes in leaf shapes. Flowers of black pepper are very minute. Fruit is single seeded berry which is thin and soft. Here fully grown vines are completely covers the appearance of bush. It required six months to fully mature after flowering. Pepper starts yielding at 3rd or 4th years after plantations. It vines flower in May or June. Harvesting is done at from November to February.

black pepper

Cultivation Method

Land and Soil

Soil suitable for black pepper ranging from heavy clay to light sandy clays which is rich in humus well drained. It should have ample of water holding capacity. Soil with high organic and high base saturation with near to neutral Ph enhanced more productivity. In short well drained loamy soil which is rich in humus is suitable for black pepper cultivation and best crop is obtained only in virgin forest soil. Black pepper crop tolerates temperature between 10 to 40 degree Celsius. Average temperature it required is up to 28 degree Celsius.

Planting Types

Black Pepper is propagated by seeds or vegetatively. For commercial cultivation vegetative method is efficient. Propagating method of black pepper can be through cutting, grafting, layering, budding and root cutting for commercial farming. For direct field planting lengthier cutting method is useful.

Black pepper plants required support for their establishment. To give support for black pepper both living and non living methods are use. Black pepper is cultivated mainly in two types as mono crop or intercrop. In intercrop it is cultivated in between another plants and in mono crop it is cultivated by help bamboo or any specific tree. Black pepper is planted normally by spacing 2.5 m × 2.5 m. In India spacing closer of 2 m × 2 m . Living standards use for support should plant in advance 3 to 4 years before black pepper plantation.


Water supply for black pepper is done by drip irrigation. Frequently water irrigation is done from November to march as recommended. This will increase black pepper yield by 50%. In winter water is given at least in 1 week and in summer it should be at every 2 days for more productivity. In hot summer season soil should be mulch with dried grass which retain some extent of moisture.

Mulching and Weeding

Black pepper roots are concentrated in 50 to 6 cm in soil layer. Mulching is essential to protect roots in hot summer season from heat and to avoid soil lose in rainfall. Various green leaves or dried leaves can also use as mulching for black pepper to prevent soil erosions and protect roots from heat.


Black pepper first harvest is done at third year after its plantation. It start flowering at 1st year but they are removed to get good yield. Harvesting of vines is done from November to march. Well maintain crop is harvested up to 15 years. After its flowering it takes 8 to 9 month to get matured. Symptoms of maturity shows when berries get separated easily by rubbing by hand. Berries are converted into three types of pepper black pepper, green pepper and white pepper. For black pepper berries are harvested when they are just matured before fully ripening. Here berries are dried directly in sunlight for few days and after cover are removes from berries. For white pepper berries should fully ripen and prepared steaming or boiling water treatment.

Black peppercorns

This stuff is very well known as black pepper. This are dried fruit of flowering pepper wine. Here unripe berries are harvested cooked and dried. Sometime this are dried in sunlight. Black peppers are has large demand in India and out of India. this black peppercorns come from southern part of India.

Black peppercorns

White peppercorns

White peppercorns begin same ways as black pepper, here fruits are soaked in water after harvesting until skin get soft’s and removed. It taste similar to black pepper but lack some pungent flavor.

White peppercorns

Green peppercorns

Green peppercorn are picked usually immature and unripe. Those green peppercorn are aromatic than white or black peppercorns.

Green peppercorns